現在完成式 Present Perfect

上文法課的時候上到現在完成式跟過去完成式,所以稍微把先前講義的東西在整理一下。這兩個時態對同學來說挺難的,因為中文比較沒有相對應的用法。時態沒法用死背的,要先知道什麼時候用這個時態,然後記住它的句型,肯定句,否定句,疑問句的表達方式,再來留意常常跟哪些副詞在一起使用,動詞的第三個變化過去分詞要記熟。記住後多閱讀,多做練習,注意文章或說話當中用到現在完成式的時機。然後把它用出來,才算真正的學會了。

 

所以第一要先知道英文在什麼時候用現在完成式,經驗,過去重複行為,過去一直持續到現在,大致上多用在這幾個狀況下。發生在過去那為什麼不用過去簡單式,在某些狀況下可以通用,但是有些則不行。記住現在完成式表達過去發生的某件事,但是跟現在還是有關係的,所以叫現在完成式,現在完成式強調發生的事,時間不重要,所以後面通常沒有確切時間。過去簡單則強調發生的時間。I have moved to a new apartment. 告訴你我搬家了,什麼時候搬的不重要,重要的是我現在住新的地方了。I moved to a new apartment last week. 告訴你我上星期搬家了,強調上星期搬了家。這部分的講義把各種用法分開練習。同學可以自己練習一下。Practice makes perfect. 這部分真的有點不容易,但多練習絕對是完全理解學會之道。加油囉!

 

又wordpress的格式超亂的,所以想要下載的人請到最後面的google docs連結去下載:)

現在完成式  Present Perfect    jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com       

                                         Jessie Lin          P.1  

一、現在完成式的使用時機

1. 現在完成式常用來表達經驗。從過去到現在為止曾發生或未發生的事。重要的是這個經驗跟現在的關係,發生的時間不重要或不確定。常與ever, never, already, yet, still, just, lately, recently等副詞連用。

He has won several awards.

I have never been on TV.

2.現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

We have had three tests so far this semester.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

3. 現在完成式也用來表達一件在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與since與for連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has

肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

肯定句                   S  +   have/has + V3

I        have     seen the movie.

My mother     has      been to Canada.

否定與問句需要有have或has這兩個助動詞來幫忙。否定句在助動詞後面加not

否定句                  S   +   have/has not    +   V3

They       have not        seen the movie.

He         has not         been to Canada.

Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has  +   S    +  V

Have        you       seen the movie?

Has         Tom       been to Canada?

WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have          you         been?

How long    has           May         taught English?

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

現在完成式  Present Perfect              Jessie Lin          P.2

動詞的變化有四種。

  1. 第一個是動詞原型V1,也就是在字典中查到的字典型如eat。用在現在簡單式,但是第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加s,如eat, eats。
  2. 第二種是過去式時使用的第二態V2,動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,如cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate。
  3. 第三態又叫過去分詞V3,用在完成式與被動。一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,與第二態過去式一樣,如cooked。不規則的第三態與過去式V2有時相同,有時不同,也需牢記,如eaten。
  4. 第四種是現在分詞,也就是動詞後面加ing,用在進行式。不規則動詞的三態變化可以在字典中查到,需要牢記。

四、完成式動詞的拼字與發音變化

規則動詞的過去式與過去分詞拼字變化如下:

  1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

  1. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

  1. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

  1. 動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加ed即可。

play-played, stay-stayed, enjoy-enjoyed, annoy-annoyed,

  1. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

  1. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去式發音變化如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。其中無聲子音指的是除了/ t / 之外的/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ / , / tʃ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。其中有聲子音指的是除了/ d / 之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

現在完成式  Present Perfect常見不規則動    Jessie Lin          P.3 

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
bebuy

come

do

drink

drive

eat

find

fly

forget

get

give

go

have

know

leave

lose

make

meet

quit

read

ride

run

see

sell

sing

sit

sleep

speak

spend

swim

take

think

wear

win

write

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

練習

A. 表經驗肯定句

Look at these phrase and write six sentences about your experience.

I have worked in a restaurant. / I haven’t worked in a restaurant.

  1. work in a restaurant
  2. talk to someone from another country
  3. watch an American TV series
  4. be on television
  5. have a car accident
  6. eat raw meat
  7. study another foreign language
  8. lost something important

B. 表經驗疑問句

1. Have you sung in a KTV?

2. Have you been to an internet café網咖?

3. Have you tried ice-skating溜冰?

4. Have you seen a live concert現場演唱會?

5. Have you tried any of the activities活動 below? Which ones?

6. Which of the following activities would you like to try?

Activities

1 sky diving 跳傘 2 hang-gliding 滑翔翼 3 hot air balloon熱氣球

4 paintball漆彈 5 bungee-jumping高空彈跳 6 car racing 賽車

7 skiing滑雪 8 dolphin and whale watching賞海豚與賞鯨 9 surfing衝浪,

10 rock climbing攀岩  11 marital arts武術

C. 現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.

I haven’t shopped at all this week.

  1. How many times have you taken a sick leave this year?
  2. How many times have you done laundry this week?
  3. How many times have you had dinner with your family this week?
  4. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?
  5. How many times have you washed the dishes this week?
  6. How many times have you ___________________?

D.現在完成式用在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與since與for連用。

I have taught English for ten years.

Jesse has lived in New York since he was five.

for + a period of time 一段時間 (five hours, ten days, a week, a long time)

since + a time spot 一個時間點(9.00, this morning, last month, 1989, five days ago)

1. How long have you had your current hairstyle?

I’ve had my current hairstyle for two years.

2. How long have you known your best friend?

I’ve known my best friend for ten years.

3. How long have you studied English at this school?

I’ve studied English here since this January.

4. How long have you lived in Taipei?

I’ve lived in Taipei since I was born.

5. How long have you owned your shoes?

I’ve owed my shoes for 6 months.

6.  How long have you _____________?

E.  already, yet, and just

現在完成式常與already跟yet這兩個副詞連用。

   already用於肯定句,放在have跟過去分詞之間,也可放句尾,表事件已經發生。

yet用於否定句,放在句尾,或放在have not跟過去分詞之間,表事件尚未發生。

yet用於問句,一般放句尾,表示想知道是否事件發生了。

   just 在美式英語常會用在過去式,表示剛做過某件事。

Have you eaten lunch yet?

Yes, I’ve already eaten lunch.  I just ate lunch before I came here.

No, I haven’t eaten lunch yet.

 

 F. 現在完成式與過去簡單式的比較

1. 用現在完成式來表達生活中的經驗 Have you ever been to Japan?

2. 用過去簡單式來說明某件事發生確切時間。I went to Japan last year.

問經驗的時候會先用現在完成式來問,回答也用現在完成式。但是接下來的問題會用過去式來問,以得到其他更詳盡的資料,而回答時也用過去式。

Have you ever been to Korea ?          Yes, I’ve been to Korea.

When did you go there?                         I went there last July.

Who did you go there with?                I went there with my family.

How long were you there?                 I was there for five days.

1.

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ____famous. (see, become)

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

G. Present Perfect Questions

  1. Have you eaten dinner/lunch/breakfast? What did you eat?

Yes, I have eaten dinner. I had beef noodles.

  1. Have you ever lost anything important? What did you lose?

Yes, I’ve lost something important. I’ve lost my wallet.

  1. Have you ever bought your mother a gift? What did you buy?

Yes, I’ve bought my mother a gift. I bought her a necklace.

  1. Have you ever won a lottery? How much did you win?

Yes, I have. I won around five hundred dollars.

  1. Have you ever had a pet? What did you have?  Yes, I have had a pet. I had two dogs and a fish when I was in elementary school.
  2. Have you ever rented a car or a bike? Where did you rent it?

Yes, I’ve rented a car many times. I rented it in Tamsui.

  1. Have you taken a trip to Green Island? When did you go there?

Yes, I’ve taken a trip to Green Island. I went there in 1998.

  1. Have you ever eaten Thai food? How did you like it?

Yes, I’ve eaten Thai food. I love it.

  1. Have you ever seen a Japanese movie? How did you like it?

Yes, I’ve seen many Japanese movies. I like some of them, not all.

  1. Have you ever made someone cry? What happened? Yes, I’ve made someone cry. My ex-boyfriend cried when I told him I wanted to break up with him.
  2. Have you ever done a stranger a favor? What did you do?

Yes, I’ve done a stranger a favor. I told him the directions.

  1. Have you ever had red wine? How did you like it? Yes, I’ve had red wine, white wine, and sparkling wine. I don’t like red wine. I like sparkling wine better.
  2. Have you bought anything at 7-11 today? What did you buy?

Yes, I’ve bought something at 7-11 today. I bought a drink and a sandwich.

  1. Have you seen a movie this month? What did you see?

No, I haven’t seen a movie this month. I have been very busy.

  1. Have you ever been to a wedding? Whose wedding was it? Yes, I’ve been to many weddings. I went to my friends’, coworkers’, and relatives’ weddings.
  2. How long have you had your current hair style?

I’ve had this hair style for more than one year.

  1. How long have you lived in Taipei? I’ve lived in Taipei since I was born.
  2. How long have you studied in this school? I’ve studied here for 6 months.
  3. How long have you known your best friend? I’ve known her since college.

20. How have you felt this week? I’ve felt down because I don’t like rainy days.

 

H. Present Perfect Questions

  1. What’s the most exciting thing you’ve done in your life?

Swimming naked赤裸的 in the sea is the most exciting thing I’ve done.

  1. Where’s the most beautiful place you’ve ever been?

The most beautiful place I’ve even been is Paris.

  1. Have you ever been to a jazz club? Yes, I have. I went to a jazz club last weekend.
  2. Have you ever drunk herbal tea 花草茶? Yes, I have. I often drink peppermint tea to help me feel relaxed.
  3. Have you seen a movie this month? Yes, I have. I saw a movie last night.
  4. Have you ever fallen asleep 睡著 in class?

Yes, I have. I fell asleep in math class today!

  1. Have you done much exercise this week?

No, I haven’t. In fact, I never exercise.

  1. Have you ever ridden a roller-coaster 雲霄飛車?

No, I haven’t. I only rode on the merry-go-round.

  1. Have you ever made an international call 打國際電話? Yes, I have. I just made one yesterday. I talk to my father on skype every week.
  2. Have you ever been to a wedding? Yes, I have been to many weddings.
  3. Have you ever traveled to another country? Yes, I have traveled to many countries. My favorite one is France.
  4. Have you eaten Thai food this month? No, I haven’t. I don’t like Thai food.
  5. Have you ever rented a bike or a car? Yes, I have. I rented a bike in Tamsui last weekend.
  6. Have you ever made someone cry 讓某人哭? Yes, I have. I made my ex-boyfriend cry when I told him I wanted to break up with him.
  7. Have you bought something at 7-11 today? No, I haven’t. I bought something at family-mart though.
  8. Have you ever lost something valuable 遺失貴重的東西? Yes, I have. I lost my wallet.
  9. Have you ever been late for class? Yes, I have. I am always late for class because I finish work late.
  10. Have you drunk coffee at Starbucks this week? No, I haven’t. I only buy coffee at 7-11 because it’s much cheaper.
  11. Have you ever been to Green Island 綠島?No, I haven’t but I would like to go.
  12. Have you ever won a lottery 中彩卷? No, I haven’t but I won money from the receipt a few times.

F. 解答

1

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

A: Have you ever met anyone famous?

B: Yes, I have, actually. When I was in Mexico on vacation.

A: Really? Who did you meet?

B: Michael Jackson. He was in the same restaurant as me.

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

A: Have you ever written a diary?

B: Yes, I have. I wrote one when I was a teenager.

A: Did you write it every day?

B: No, I didn’t. Only when I was on holiday.

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

A: Have you ever been to France?

B: Yes, I have. I went there six years ago.

A: Where did you stay?

B: I rented an apartment near Bordeaux.

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ______famous. (see, become)

A: Has your mother ever gone to a rock concert?

B: Yes, she has. She went to one or two when she was young.

A: Who did she see?

B: Well, I know she saw David Bowie before he became famous.

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

A: Have you ever learned to play an instrument?

B: No, I haven’t. What about you?

A: Well, I tried to learn the piano at school.

B: Were you any good?

A: No, I had no idea what I was doing!

 

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1yLL7vwDdJTFS8KHNMtwHdfIztuINkjQTs6ETTHzDLqU/edit

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