分詞構句,形容詞子句縮減成分詞形容詞片語,副詞子句縮減成副詞片語

一不小心就說了一個多小時,潔西覺得一講就講不完啊,真的會有人有時間花一個多小時聽嗎?不過真的可以一邊打掃房間一邊洗碗做家事的時候或運動的時候一邊聽,潔西聽 Ted Talks 大概都這樣,典型 multi-tasking 多工型,日文叫做 ながら, 就是同時一起做好幾件事的人。

 

潔西就一個離題王,而且給很多例子,不過真的例子多做就有概念了,因為潔西自己說到後面都覺得,都快背起來了,一直說重複的東西,真的有聽過一次真的會印象還蠻深的,潔西自己覺得。不過呢一下子講太難的東西,感覺可能從中間看的人也不知道要從何看起。下次挑簡單一點的好了,然後可以開放點時間給大家問問題。今天忘記了,因為講好久了,不知不覺就一個多小時。

 

然後開台有個大好處就是,YouTube會自己主動轉檔,超快的,潔西平常上傳到都快瘋掉的久,開完台沒多久就轉好了。缺點是,恩,所有都會錄進去,然後很不好意思的是,潔西最後面明明停止了,結果摸了很久突然發現,啊!!!!!怎麼會什麼時候又自己打開了,還是剛剛沒關好,然後就看到潔西一直在捉該去洗的頭的圖,恩,後面請大家自己省略不要看。潔西再來上網查查看能不能修改,看怎麼樣把後面修掉,這應該很多學生都會,他們實況主,啊,但是他們都有專人幫忙重事後製,他們只要坐著數鈔票就好了(誤),等等被打,還想要找人家出來吃飯,到時候沒人要理潔西就糗大了。今天這捉頭圖已經夠糗了,然後自己看的時候發現一個更好笑的是,因為設定的關係,所以鏡頭是聰明的還是笨蛋的呢?他會自己主動調整距離,一下子拉近,一下子縮遠,還蠻好玩的,唉,是蠻好笑的。懶得聽的人可以看文字,這次有加一點比較簡單的例句進去,希望有點幫助。

 

 

詞性是很多人的弱點,中文都是興趣,英文動詞,名詞,形容詞還分現在分詞跟過去分詞的 ed 形容詞跟 ing 形容詞,每個用法都不一樣,要特別注意一下啊!

English has always interested me. (Verb)

I’ve always had an interest in English. (Noun)

English is interesting. (present participle/adjective)

I’m interested in English. (past participle/adjective)

I lost interest halfway through the book and I never finished it.

Unfortunately, I lost interest half way through the film.

He never seems to show any interest in his children.

 

 

 

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                        

. 分詞的定義與種類

分詞(participle是由動詞詞轉變而來的形容詞。

 

現在分詞(present participle)可以是由主動動詞(active verb)而來,有ing的結尾。

 

The news surprised everyone.

She told me a surprising thing.

 

過去分詞(past participle)可以是由被動動詞(passive verb)而來,常有ed結尾,也就是動詞的第三態。

His wallet was stolen.

It’s illegal to buy stolen goods.

 

 

下面有一點要很注意的在影片裡面重複很多次就是,主詞一定要一樣才可以縮減,不要忘記了喔。

. 分詞片語的形成

分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞片語經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

縮減方式如下:

 

  1. 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),
  2. 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞改為分詞,
  3. 保留原有的標點,
  4. 否定句則將not放到分詞前即可。

 

The man (who is sitting in front of John) is Tom.

The man (sitting in front of John) is Tom.

 

The girl (who is playing basketball) is my sister.

The girl playing basketball is my sister.

 

The taxi driver, (who did not realize what happened), continued on.

The taxi driver, not realizing what happened, continued on.

 

 

Anyone (who wants to join us) is welcome.

Anyone wanting to join us is welcome.

 

The selfie (that was taken by my brother) is funny.

The selfie taken by my brother is funny.

 

A pedestrian (who had been hit by a speeding taxi) was lying in the street.

A pedestrian hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.

 

 

An ambulance (that was summoned by a bystander) came quickly.

An ambulance summoned by a bystander came quickly.

 

 

你認識那個跟珍說話的男生嗎?

Do you know that man?

The man is talking to Jane.

Do you know the man who is talking to Jane?

Do you know the man talking to Jane?

 

我住的公寓是在2005年蓋的。

I live in an apartment.

It was built in 2005.

I live in an apartment that was built in 2005.

I live in an apartment built in 2005.

 

 

. 分詞片語的位置與標點符號

分詞片語可用在限定子句或分限定子句。

 

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman (hurrying to catch a bus) tripped and fell.

 

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, (hurrying to catch a bus), stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

 

 

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me.(X)

S            V

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.(O)

 

Having run out of gas, Tom was late for school. (X)

Because the car ran out of gas, Tom was late for school. (O)

 

 

 

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

The team won the championship, which shocked their opponents.

 

 

. 現在分詞片語

現在分詞片語可能是由現在式,過去式,或未來式所形成。

現在簡單式

Many students (who study at this university) are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

 

現在進行式

Students (who are taking calculus must) buy a graphing calculator.

Students taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.

 

過去簡單式

The team members, (who looked happy after their victory), were cheered by the fans.

The team members, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.

 

過去進行式

The crowd, (which was cheering wildly as the game ended), would not leave the stadium.

Cheering wildly as the game ended, the crowd would not leave the stadium.

 

未來式

Everyone (who will take the TOEFL next month) must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEFL next month must preregister.

 

 

. 過去分詞片語

過去分詞片語可能由現在式或過去式的被動動詞形成。

現在簡單式

Lab reports (that are not handed in by Friday) will not be accepted.

Lab reports not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.

 

I get up at 7.00.

 

過去簡單式

The proposed law, (which was opposed by the majority of the people), did not pass.

The proposed law, opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.

 

minority

 

 

 

. 副詞子句的縮減

有些副詞子句也可以用相同的方式縮減成分詞片語。分詞片語在前面時,用逗號將之與獨立子句分開,分詞片語在後面時,則不須逗號。

 

When you enter a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

You should turn off your cell phone when you enter a theater.

When entering a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

You should turn off your cell phone when entering a theater.

 

While I was taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

While taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

Taking the MRT, I ran into my ex-boyfriend.

 

 

縮減方式如下:

  1. 確定主要子句跟副詞子句的主詞是相同的,
  2. 省略副詞子句的主詞,假如必要的話,把分詞片語移到最前面(因為有時候改成分詞片語語義會引起誤會,所以要放到最前面),
  3. 將副詞子句改為適當的分詞片語,
  4. 根據下列規則,保留或刪去某些副詞子句的從屬代名詞。
  5. 保留before跟時間子句的since
  6. 保留after, while, when,假如這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句後面。當這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句前時,可保留也可省略。
  7. 省略表示理由的because, since, as與表示時間的as。

 

 

. 副詞子句的縮減

Before a student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors.

Before choosing a college, a student should consider several factors.

A student should consider several factors before choosing a college.

 

 

After he had passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

 

 

Because Carlos came from a very conservative family, he was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

Coming from a very conservative family, Carlos was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

 

mixed, guest house, youth hostel, male, female, mixed

 

As he gradually got used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

Gradually getting used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

 

 

 

七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子

 

1 我在超市買東西的時候,遇到一個老朋友。

While I was shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.

 

2 在出門上班前,我吃了早餐。

Before I left for work, I had breakfast.

Before I left for work, I had had breakfast.

Before leaving for work, I had breakfast.

 

3 自從來這家公司上班後,她學了很多。

Since she worked for this company, she has learned a lot.

Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.

 

4 缺乏必需的資格(qualification),他沒有拿到那份工作。

He lacked the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.

Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.

 

 

負擔不起車子,我買了一臺摩托車。

Because I am not able to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Because not being able to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Because being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

 

paper driver

 

 

  1. 七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子
  2. While shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.
  3. Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.
  4. Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.
  5. Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.
  6. Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

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