過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別

 

過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式的用法與區別

 

 

練習題解答

 

 

 

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

下面有先前的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

 

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

 

參考書籍:

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

 

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

 

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today..

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

 

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

 

潔西自己這樣用蠻久了,主流的文法書不會這樣用,網路上倒是最近也有看到類似的用法,主要是覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

 

 

A 過去簡單式Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

 

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

 

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

 

It was all my fault.  / My bad.

 

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

 

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

get married, get engaged, get divorced.

 

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x——————–now——————–future

 

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

 

 

 

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

 

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

 

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

 

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

 

 

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

 

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

 

 

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

 

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

hangover  醉後大丈夫

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?   Where did I put my wallet?

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

 

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

 

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

 

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

1                                              2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

2                                          1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

1                                                          2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the

beginning.    2                                               1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

 

 

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

 

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

 

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

 

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

 

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

 

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

 

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

 

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

 

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

 

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

 

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

 

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

 

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

 

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

 

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

 

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

 

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

 

 

影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter

everywhere.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica

was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

 

 

 

 

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

 

E

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

 

F

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

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