過去完成式 Past Perfect

這一篇點閱率頗高,想必大家弄不太清楚。剛寫了過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式,裡面有幾個過去式的用法與比較,有些部分重覆,還是可以一起參考一下;)

 

過去完成式是大部分同學都很頭痛的一個時態,假如把現在完成式跟過去簡單式弄懂了,再來看過去完成式會比較容易些。這個時態的重點簡言之就是過去發生兩件事情,先發生的事用過去完成式S + had + V3, 後發生的事用過去式 S + V2。假如只單純表示過去發生的一件事,只要用過去簡單式就可以了。

 

又wordpress的格式超亂的,所以想要下載的人請到最後面的google docs連結去下載:)

過去完成式  Past Perfect               Jessie Lin          jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com      P.1  

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of a shock. I suddenly realized that I’d left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

 

一、過去完成式的使用時機

1. 過去完成式用在表達過去的某件事發生在另外一個過去的時間點前。通常用來表達跟過去某個事件間的關係。在過去發生了兩件事,先發生的用過去完成式,後發   生的用過去簡單式。

Jerry felt sick after he had eaten too much chocolate.

Linda had already left when Tom arrived.

 

2. 當兩件過去的事件的連接詞為after, before, as soon as這些可以很清楚地表現時間的關係時,兩個事件可以都用過去簡單式來表示。

After the guests had left, I went to bed.

After the guests left, I went to bed.

 

二、過去完成式的句型為   主詞+had+V3

a. 肯定句句型為S + had  + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

肯定句  S  + had  + V3

I     had     lived in Keelung before I moved to Taipei last year.

My family   had    already had dinner when I got home.

b. 否定與問句需要有had這個助動詞來幫忙。否定句在助動詞後面加not

否定句   S   + had +  not   + V3

He     had     not    slept for 24 hours by then.

c. Yes/No 問句把助動詞had放在主詞前面造問句

Had + S  +  V?

Had   you    surfed the Net before you left home this morning?

d. WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞

WH       had + S  + V3

How long  had    you    known your wife before you got married?

 

三 現在完成式用來表達到目前為止(before now)

過去完成式表達在過去前(before then)

My wallet isn’t here. I’ve left it behind.

My wallet wasn’t there. I’d left it behind.

The match is over. United have won.

The match was over. United had won.

That man looks familiar. I’ve seen him somewhere before.

The man looked familiar. I’d seen him somewhere before.

 

練習題

  1. We rushed to the stations, but we were too late. (the train/just/go)
  2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter. (the rain/stop)
  3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in. (forgot/my ticket)
  4. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. (not see/her/for ages)
  5. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation. (already/eat/my sandwiches)
  6. Where ____________ (you/be) before you ____________(get) home yesterday?
  7. Before you _____________(go) to bed last night, what _______________ (you/already/do)?
  8. Who ________________(already/get up) when you ____________ (leave) home this morning?
  9. What _______________(you/do) before you _____________ (come) to class?
  10. Where __________________ (you/study) before you __________ (come) to this school?

 

 

解答

1. We rushed to the stations, but we were too late. (the train/just/go)

The train had just gone.

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter. (the rain/stop)

The rain had stopped.

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in. (forgot/my ticket)

I had forgotten my ticket.

4. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. (not see/her/for ages)

I hadn’t seen her for ages.

5. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation. (already/eat/my sandwiches)

I had already eaten my sandwiches.

6. Where ____________ (you/be) before you ____________(get) home yesterday?

Where had you been before you got home yesterday.

7. Before you _____________(go) to bed last night, what _______________ (you/already/do)?

Before you went to bed last night, what had you already done?

8. Who ________________(already/get up) when you ____________ (leave) home this morning?

Who had already gotten up when you left home this morning?

9. What _______________(you/do) before you _____________ (come) to class?

What had you done before you came to class?

10. Where __________________ (you/study) before you __________ (come) to this school?

Where had you studied before you came to this school?

 

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1G7FWkDCzoH_yHZUt4_wQDiWLIhDNRYPU1DzviyyQWxw/edit

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6 thoughts on “過去完成式 Past Perfect

  1. 你好,我想請問
    (問題1)題目:我妹妹在讀完小說後洗碗。
    答案可以寫成 My sister had read novel after she washed the dishes.讀完小說(先-過去完成式);洗碗(後-過去簡單式)
    (問題2)有些題目中after before的用法順序(有的在句首有的在句中)該如何作描述?
    謝謝你 : )

    • 英文的句子跟中文不一樣,要從before, after 開始翻,所以你寫的句子變成她洗完盤子後再看小說,而且時態剛好用反,所以外國人會看不懂究竟哪個先哪個後

      After my sister read the novel, she washed the dishes.
      After my sister had read the novel, she washed the dishes.

      因為before跟after的句子有在…之前跟在…之後,所以兩邊都用過去式就可以,但是when的句子就不行,因為語意會完全不同,可能要多看幾遍或多看一些不同的講解,做一些練習會比較有概念:)

    • 過去完成式一般會用在表達一件事情發生在另外一件事情前,通常會有兩個動作或狀態等,強調一件事發生在另外一件事前,先發生用過去完成,後發生用過去簡單。

      假如只是單純說忘了帶票應該用 I forgot the ticket. 就可以了。 除非是跟別人討論到過去發生的兩件事的關係,比方說 When I got off the bus, I noticed that I had forgotten the ticket. 才會需要用到過去完成式。

      可以多找一些不同參考資料,一定要理解,理解後多做練習,然後注意現實生活中的文章新聞等等實際的用法應該會比較懂,這過去完成式是有一點難啊,加油:)

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